The nation of Egypt has been a cornerstone of the Arab world for millennia, since irrigation of the river Nile allowed vegetation to flourish and a civilisation to expand. To this day it is a cultural hub, with people travelling from around the world for events such for the Abu Simbel Sun Festival, and nationwide annual celebrations on the Islamic holy festival of Eid.
Egypt’s capital Cairo is one of the most populous cities in the world, and is a centre of great social and political significance. While a hot, arid climate can be found across the entirety of Egypt, the "heat circle" of buildings in Cairo has seen the capital hit temperatures of 47°C in the recent years. The University of Cairo has its main campus in Giza, on a site across the Nile and opposite the bustling city.
Egypt is also a nation with an unparalleled history, with an ancient civilisation that arose in 3100BC and remained the dominant force in the Mediterranean until being conquered by Alexander The Great almost three millennia later. The Library of Alexandria was a global centre of education during this period, and while the library was destroyed thousands of years ago, the University of Alexandria is today one of Egypt’s foremost institutions of higher learning.
As well as the faces of antiquity such as Cleopatra and Tutankhamen, modern Egypt is known for such figures as journalist Mona Eltahawy and Arab leader Gamal Abdel Nasser.