Essay mills turning out high-quality essays undetected – study

Academics gave ghostwritten papers good marks in Australian study

July 14, 2016
Rolls of paper loaded at paper mill
Source: iStock

Cheating by students who use essay mills is “virtually undetectable”, according to a study that found that many ghostwritten papers would receive good marks if they were submitted.

Lisa Lines, an associate lecturer in history at the University of New South Wales, conducted an experiment in which she ordered essays from 13 ghostwriting websites and then had them graded by leading academics who believed that they were looking at genuine student submissions.

The results were “alarming”, with the quality of purchased essays being “higher than expected”, says Dr Lines, who warned that the use of essay mills might therefore be “much, much higher” than previously thought.

Posing as a student, she had purchased 13 undergraduate history essays, required to be 2,000 words long and on the subject of the end of the Second World War, at a cost of between A$166 and A$529 (£95 and £304).

Of these, only two received failing grades of 49 per cent or lower. Seven received a pass (between 50 and 64 per cent), three got a credit (65 to 74 per cent), and one was judged worthy of a high distinction (above 85 per cent).

She also purchased 13 master’s essays, with the same word limit and a similar title but requiring more sources to be cited, at a cost of between A$181 and A$713.

Of these, six received fails, often because they appeared to misunderstand the question. But three got passes, two a credit, one a distinction (75 to 84 per cent) and one a high distinction.

Significantly, Turnitin plagiarism detection software did not perceive anything wrong in any of the undergraduate essays, and identified the copying of material in only three of the postgraduate papers.

Writing in Teaching in Higher Education, Dr Lines says that some of the essays did contain warning signs that could have been detected by academics who were aware of them, including the use of a thesaurus to replace words and avoid detection by Turnitin, the use of American English and the ghostwriter’s name appearing as author on the digital document.

But she argues that much more radical steps will be needed to combat the use of essay mills, including greater use of exams and requiring students to give oral presentations on the topic of completed essays.

Otherwise, the pressures on students mean that the use of ghostwriters will “only escalate”, Dr Lines says.

“It is clear that this type of cheating is virtually undetectable by academics when students take precautions against being caught,” she concludes.

“This fact, coupled with the study’s findings that the quality of essays available for purchase is sufficient to receive a passing grade or better, reveals a very troubling situation for universities and poses a real threat to academic integrity and standards, and public perceptions of these.”

Phil Newton, director of learning and teaching at Swansea University Medical School, agreed that higher education institutions needed to diversify their assessment methods.

“We already knew that essays were available cheaply and quickly,” Professor Newton said.

“This study confirms that they are very difficult to detect using the strategies traditionally employed to detect plagiarism and, perhaps most strikingly, that the essays purchased can be written to a high academic standard.

“Trying to combat the problem by attempting to detect ghostwritten essays is just not going to work.”

You've reached your article limit

Register to continue

Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 6 articles each month, plus:

  • Sign up for the editor's highlights
  • Receive World University Rankings news first
  • Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches
  • Participate in reader discussions and post comments

Related universities


Print headline: Essay mills are turning out high-quality papers undetected, study suggests

Reader's comments (1)

Anonymous marking has also made this more of a problem. One of the ways of raising suspicion about an essay is if it is noticeably better, or of a different style to the work that the student usually produces. If you don't know who is supposed to have written the essay, you have no history of quality and style with which to compare.

Have your say

Log in or register to post comments

Most Commented

question marks PhD study

Selecting the right doctorate is crucial for success. Robert MacIntosh and Kevin O'Gorman share top 10 tips on how to pick a PhD

India, UK, flag

Sir Keith Burnett reflects on what he learned about international students while in India with the UK prime minister

Pencil lying on open diary

Requesting a log of daily activity means that trust between the institution and the scholar has broken down, says Toby Miller

Microlight pilot flies with flock of cranes

Reports of UK-based researchers already thinking of moving overseas after Brexit vote

Portrait montage of Donald Trump and Nigel Farage

From Donald Trump to Brexit, John Morgan considers the challenges of a new international political climate