University of St Andrews. DLitt: Iain Banks, author; Hamish Brown, pioneer of outdoor education, freelance writer, guide and expedition organiser, founder member of the Scottish Mountain Leadership Training Board.
DSc: David Carter, chief medical officer for Scotland, former Regius professor of clinical surgery at Edinburgh University.
LLD: Douglas Cullen, Queen's counsel, former advocate-depute and senator to the College of Justice, Scotland.
DLitt: Basil Greenhill, former diplomat, world authority on maritime history, advisor to the university's Institute of Marine Studies.
DSc: John Price, former spectroscopist and chief analyst at Magnesium Elektron Ltd and Unicam Instruments Ltd, founder member of the atomic absorption discussion group of the Society for Analytical Chemistry.
LLD: David Butler, emeritus fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford, co-author of the British General Election series, chairman of the Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government.
MA: Allan Smith, general manager of the Channel Islands Co-operative Society, chairman of governors at Highlands College and of the Islands' Advisory Training Council.
MSc: John Jemmett, senior regional trials officer for the National Institute of Agricultural Botany, Horticultural Development Council's regional representative for field vegetables; George Williams, president and managing director of the Toshiba Manufacturing Company, Plymouth, sponsor of the Young Enterprise Scheme and active participant in the Institute of Management.
DD: Donald English, former general secretary of the Methodist Church division of Home Mission, president of the World Methodist Council (1981-86).
DEng: Tony Ridley, Rees Jeffreys professor of transport engineering at Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, chairman of London Underground (1985-88) and chief executive in 1988.
DLitt: Sheila Whitaker, director of the London Film Festival (1987-96).
DSc: David Jones, scientific consultant, writer and broadcaster; George Metakides, professor of logic, University of Patras and director of ESPRIT (the EU-funded information technology research programme).
MA: Alison Kay, founder of The People's Kitchen Ltd, providing care of the homeless in Newcastle.
Heriot Watt University
DEng: George Bennett, corporate vice president, Motorola.
DLitt: Alexander Scott Bell, managing director of Standard Life; Richard Greenbury, chairman of Marks and Spencer; David Sutherland, registrar of the General Teaching Council; William Baillie, president of the Royal Scottish Academy; James Appleton, honorary life member and past chairman of the Landscape Research Group.
MSc: Andrew Barr, co-opted member of the court of the university and convenor of the staffing committee (1987-90).
DUniv: Norman Irons, ex-Lord Provost of Edinburgh.
DSc: John Houghton, former chief executive of the Meteorological Office.
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