Nobel Prizes

October 20, 1995


The following prizes have been awarded for 1995: Chemistry: Paul Crutzen (Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany), Mario Molina (MIT Cambridge, Massachusetts) and F. Sherwood Rowland (University of California, Irvine) for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

Economic sciences: Robert E. Lucas (University of Chicago) for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy.

Literature: Seamus Heaney "for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past".

Peace: In two equal parts to Joseph Rotblat and the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer-run to eliminate such arms.

Physiology or Medicine: the prize has been awarded jointly to Edward B. Lewis (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) Christiane Nusslein-Volhard (Max-Planck Institut fur Entwicklungbiologie, Tubingen) and Eric F. Wieschaus (Princeton University) for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.

Physics: one half of the prize has been awarded to Martin L. Perl (Stanford University, California) for the discovery of tau lepton; and one half awarded to Frederick Reines (University of California, Irvine) for the detection of the neutrino.

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