Maria Petrou, professor of image analysis at Surrey University, is one of only two women to be elected fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering this week.
In total, 42 academics have been elected fellows of the academy, which inaugurated the honour in 1976 to recognise the UK's most eminent engineers.
Professor Petrou's research on medical image analysis uses data collected by magnetic resonance imaging to characterise 3D tissue, such as brain tumours, that is not visible to the human eye.
Professor Petrou said that it was important that more women were encouraged to follow careers in engineering. "I have a few women working in the research team with me. They are model examples that women should not be underestimated," she said.
The second female fellow elected this year is Jane Grimson, vice-provost of Trinity College Dublin.