A universities body is calling for funding for doctoral candidates at universities across Europe to be improved so they can live and work in decent conditions.
A report from the European Universities Association says PhD candidates in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, the Slovak Republic and some in Austria received minimum grants of less than €5,000 (£3,400) a year. Those in Andorra, some in Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Spain, Sweden, the UK and Scotland get a minimum grant between €7,000 and €21,000 a year while those in Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland and some Austrians get more than €22,000.
Detailed data on doctoral funding should be collected to help find a solution to the problem of funding PhD candidates, the report suggests. The EUA found that scholarships and grants were the main mode of funding doctoral candidates, although in about half of the countries, salaries or teaching assistantships were also offered.