Top countries in biology and biochemistry

Data provided by Thomson Reuters from its Essential Science Indicators, 1 January 1998-31 October 2008

February 19, 2009

 Scientist Papers CitationsCitations per paper
1 Switzerland10,736 249,512 23.24
2 United States205,965 4,691,498 22.78
3 Scotland7,697 164,132 21.32
4 England41,188 852,701 20.70
5 The Netherlands12,483 234,013 18.75
6 Germany45,334 848,633 18.72
7 Denmark8,078 145,444 18.00
8 Sweden13,811 247,763 17.94
9 Canada26,849 477,864 17.80
10 Israel6,806 120,683 17.73
11 Finland5,126 87,924 17.15
12 Belgium7,588 128,026 16.87
13 Australia15,303 252,831 16.52
14 France35,543 568,805 16.00
15 Austria5,282 80,506 15.24
16 Japan62,890 864,463 13.75
17 Italy24,093 307,856 12.78
18 Spain16,040 200,504 12.50
19 South Korea13,003 115,833 8.91
20 Poland8,656 63,541 7.34
The data above were extracted from the Essential Science Indicators database of Thomson Reuters. This database, currently covering the period January 1998 through October 2008, surveys only journal articles (original research reports and review articles) indexed by Thomson Reuters. Articles are assigned to a category based on the journals in which they were published and Thomson Reuters’ journal-to-category field-definition scheme. Both articles tabulated and citation counts to those articles are for the period indicated. Here our ranking in biology and biochemistry is by citations per paper – among nations that earned 50,000 or more citations during the period – to reveal weighted impact. For articles with multiple authors from different nations, each nation receives full, not fractional, citation credit. Essential Science Indicators lists nations ranked in the top 50 per cent for a field over a given period, based on total citations. In biology and biochemistry, 98 nations are listed, meaning 196 were surveyed. Twenty-four nations collected at least 50,000 citations in this field during the period. For more information on Thomson Reuters’ Essential Science Indicators, see http://scientific.thomsonreuters.com/products/esi.

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