Research & Development in the EU: EU25 spent nearly 2% of GDP on Research and Development in 2002

February 25, 2005

Research and Development expenditure


R&D intensity, R&D expenditure as% of GDP R&D expenditure R&D expenditure by business sector, as% of total
1998 2000 2003 2003 (mio euro) Annual average growth rate in real terms (%) 1998-2003 2002 EU25 1.82 1.88 1.93* 186 035* 4.0 55.4** EU15 1.86 1.93 1.99* 182 488* 4.3 56.0** Belgium 1.90 2.04 2.33 6 236 6.2 64.3** Czech Republic 1.16 1.23 1.35 1 019 6.4 53.7 Denmark 2.06 2. 2.60 4 899 6.6 61.5** Germany 2.31 2.49 2.50 53 200 2.7 65.5 Estonia 0.58 0.62 0.77 62 11.6 29.2 Greece 0.67**** : 0.64** 841** 1.7 29.7** Spain 0.89 0.94 1.11 8 213 7.6 48.9 France 2.17 2.18 2.19 34 122 2.4 52.1 Ireland 1.25 1.15 1.12 1 481 4.8 67.2*** Italy 1.07 1.07 1.16* 14 600* 3.8 : Cyprus 0.23 0.25 0.33 38 11.6 17.4 Latvia 0.41 0.45 0.39 39 4.9 21.7 Lithuania 0.55 0.59 0.68 110 9.4 .9 Luxembourg : 1.71 : 364*** : 90.7*** Hungary 0.68 0.80 0.97 708 11.0 29.7 Malta : : : : : : Netherlands 1.94 1.90 1.89** 8 090** 1.9 51.8** Austria 1.78 1.95 2.19 4 902 6.0 41.8 Poland 0.68 0.66 0.59 1 091 -1.1 31.0 Portugal 0.75**** : 0.79 1 033 2.3 31.5** Slovenia 1.39 1.44 1.53 375 5.8 60.0 Slovakia 0.79 0.65 0.57 164 -2.7 53.6 Finland 2.88 3.40 3.51 5 007 6.9 69.5 Sweden 3.62 3.65**** 4.** 10 459** 9.1 71.9** United Kingdom 1.81 1.85 1.87* 31 116* 3.5 46.7 Iceland 2.07 2.75 3.09* 280* 14.5 46.2** Norway 1.65**** 1.60** 1.89 3 684 2.9 51.7** Switzerland : 2.57 : 6 852*** : 69.1*** Bulgaria 0.57 0.52 0.50 88 1.6 24.8 Croatia : : 1.12* : : 45.7 Romania 0.49 0.37 0.40 204 3.6 41.6 Turkey 0.50 0.64 0.66* 1 280* 8.0 41.3 China 0.70 1.00 1.23* 16 452* : 57.6*** Japan 2.95 2.99 3.12* 131 722* 2.2 73.9 United States 2.59 2.70 2.76 268 552 2.7 67.3**

: Data not available
* 2002 ** 2001 *** 2000 **** 1999

NB: R&D expenditure is expressed in million current euro while the annual average growth rates in real terms of R&D expenditure are calculated from expenditure expressed in million constant 1995 PPS.
% annual average growth stands for the period 1998-2003 except for: EU25: 1999-2002; EU15, Italy, the United Kingdom, Iceland, Turkey, Japan: 1998-2002; the Czech Republic, Portugal, Norway, Romania: 1999-2003; Greece: 1999-2001; the Netherlands, Sweden: 1998-2001


Largest shares of R&D financed by business sector in Luxembourg, Sweden, Finland and Ireland

Among Member States, Luxembourg recorded the largest share of R&D expenditure financed by the business sector, with 91% in 2000, followed by Sweden (72% in 2001), Finland (70% in 2002), Ireland (67% in 2000) and Germany (66% in 2002).

In 2002, 8 out of 25 Member States registered shares for the business sector below one-third; Portugal (2001), Poland, Greece (2001), Hungary, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia and Cyprus. In these Member States the government sector was the main provider of funds. Moreover, Latvia had the highest percentage of R&D funding coming from abroad (over 35%). Foreign R&D funding was also important in Greece, Austria and the United Kingdom (more than 20% each).

  • R&D expenditure is expressed in million current euro while the annual average growth rates in real terms of R&D expenditure are calculated from expenditure expressed in million constant 1995 Purchasing Power Standard (PPS). PPS is an artificial currency that reflects differences in national price levels that are not taken into account by exchange rates. This unit allows meaningful volume comparisons of economic indicators over countries. Aggregates expressed in PPS are derived by dividing aggregates in current prices and national currency with the respective Purchasing Power Parity (PPP).
  • Eurostat, Statistics in Focus, Science and Technology, 2/2005, "R&D expenditure in the European Union”. The publication is available free of charge in PDF format on the Eurostat website.
  • Item source: STAT/05/26 Date: 24/02/2005 Previous Item Back to Titles Print Item

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