France

July 21, 2000

University heads are known as president and elected by three councils.

The board of directors votes on the budget and determines policy. Of its members, 40-45 per cent are teaching and research staff; 20-25 per cent are students; 20-30 per cent are external appointees; 10-15 per cent are administrative, technical and service staff.

The scientific council defines research policy and programmes and is made up mainly of teachers and students, a few postgraduates and 20-30 per cent outsiders.

The council for studies and university life consists mainly of teachers and students, as well as 10-15 per cent each of technical and administrative staff and outsiders.

The president is elected for five years and cannot stand for five years after leaving office.

Elections were introduced in 1968, but today's system dates to 1984.

Jane Marshall

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