Smart and Green Cities Inspired Research

Our Smart City discoveries enable us to translate research to tools for preparing for tomorrow’s possibilities in Africa.

  • Biometrics authentication for Medical records in Smart African Cities
  • Energy consumption in Smart communities
  • Learning analytics for smart campuses
  • The burden of road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths in Africa
  • Accessing safe drinking water in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Women and green jobs in construction industries
  • Energy security, trade and transition to green economy in Africa.
  • Social and context-aware mobile recommendation system for tourism.
  • Experimental performance of LPG refrigerant charges with varied concentration of TiO2nano-lubricants for Smart cities
  • Assessment of Energy Saving Potentials for Smart Cities
  • Multi-layer perceptron network model for construction material procurement in smart cities
  • Radiometric and kaolinitic terrains in Smart Basins
  • Magnetic activity and ionospheric amplitude scintillation in Emerging Smart Cities
  • Hybrid renewable power supply for rural health clinics (RHC)
  • Experimental performance of LPG refrigerant charges with varied concentration of TiO2nano-lubricants in a domestic refrigerator


Biometrics authentication for Medical records in Smart African Cities
: The advancement of technologies has continued to affect the performance of efficient healthcare systems globally. Meanwhile, the privacy and security of patients' data have recorded key concerns for most users of the health information management system. There is no gainsaying the fact that security is essential in patient care. Patient records that are inadequately kept or misinterpreted could lead to wrong prescription or death. The use of biometrics for identification has a great role to play in sustaining privacy and security of healthcare system. The objective of this paper is to develop a hospital information management system with fingerprint biometrics for authentication. The study employs a combination of technologies such as system design and modeling using the Unified Modeling Language (UML), data management, biometrics, and computer programming in order to develop a prototype health information management system


Energy consumption in Smart communities
ABSTRACT: In this data article, we present a comprehensive dataset on electrical energy consumption in a university that is practically driven by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). The total amount of electricity consumed at Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria was measured, monitored, and recorded on daily basis for a period of 12 consecutive months (January–December 2016). Energy readings were observed from the digital energy meter (EDMI Mk10E) located at the distribution substation that supplies electricity to the university community. The complete energy data are clearly presented in tables and graphs for relevant utility and potential reuse. Also, descriptive first-order statistical analyses of the energy data are provided in this data article. For each month, the histogram distribution and time series plot of the monthly energy consumption data are analyzed to show insightful trends of energy consumption in the university. Furthermore, data on the significant differences in the means of daily energy consumption are made available as obtained from one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparisons post-hoc tests. The information provided in this data article will foster research development in the areas of energy efficiency, planning, policy formulation, and management towards the realization of smart campuses.


Learning analytics for smart campuses
ABSTRACT: Empirical measurement, monitoring, analysis, and reporting of learning outcomes in higher institutions of developing countries may lead to sustainable education in the region. In this data article, data about the academic performances of undergraduates that studied engineering programs at Covenant University, Nigeria are presented and analyzed. A total population sample of 1841 undergraduates that studied Chemical Engineering (CHE), Civil Engineering (CVE), Computer Engineering (CEN), Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE), Information and Communication Engineering (ICE), Mechanical Engineering (MEE), and Petroleum Engineering (PET) within the year range of 2002–2014 are randomly selected. For the five-year study period of the engineering program, Grade Point Average (GPA) and its cumulative value of each of the sample were obtained from the Department of Student Records and Academic Affairs. In order to encourage evidence-based research in learning analytics, detailed datasets are made publicly available in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet file attached to this article. Descriptive statistics and frequency distributions of the academic performance data are presented in tables and graphs for easy data interpretations. In addition, one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison post-hoc tests are performed to determine whether the variations in the academic performances are significant across the seven engineering programs. The data provided in this article will assist the global educational research community and regional policymakers to understand and optimize the learning environment towards the realization of smart campuses and sustainable education.


The burden of road traffic crashes, injuries, and deaths in Africa
ABSTRACT: Objective to estimate the burden of road traffic injuries and deaths for all road users and among different road user groups in Africa. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar, websites of African road safety agencies and organizations for the registry- and population-based studies and reports on road traffic injury and death estimates in Africa, published between 1980 and 2015. Available data for all road users and by the road user group were extracted and analyzed. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis and estimated pooled rates of road traffic injuries and deaths. Findings We identified 39 studies from 15 African countries. The estimated pooled rate for road traffic injury was 65.2 per 100 000 populations (95% confidence interval, CI: 60.8–69.5) and the death rate was 16.6 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 15.2–18.0). Road traffic injury rates increased from 40.7 per 100 000 populations in the 1990s to 92.9 per 100 000 populations between 2010 and 2015, while death rates decreased from 19.9 per 100 000 populations in the 1990s to 9.3 per 100 000 populations between 2010 and 2015. The highest road traffic death rate was among motorized four-wheeler occupants at 5.9 per 100 000 populations (95% CI: 4.4–7.4), closely followed by pedestrians at 3.4 per 100 000 populations (95% CI: 2.5–4.2). Conclusion The burden of road traffic injury and death is high in Africa. Since registry-based reports underestimate the burden, a systematic collation of road traffic injury and death data is needed to determine the true burden.


Accessing safe drinking water in sub-Saharan Africa
ABSTRACT: Termination of the Millennium Development Goals gave birth to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with which Target 6 is to provide unhindered access to safe and economical drinking water and sanitation for all. The survey in this research adopted a stratified sampling technique that captured 400 households, in which 700 well-structured questionnaires consisting of open and closed-ended questions were distributed. The questions were in line with Water and Sanitation Hygiene (WaSH) recommendations on drinking water and sanitation for household surveys. It examined the access to safe water regarding accessibility, availability, affordability, and acceptability in Ado-Odo Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. Personal interviews were conducted to capture the emotional discretion of respondents towards the subject matter. Cross-tabulation and Multinomial logit model were used to analyze the relationship between the variables on water access. The results obtained showed that the water access within the study area is mostly limited to the private sources because of the level of quality and accessibility. The study reveals that the fate placed on government water facilities has dwindled drastically. Furthermore, the study highlighted the need to revisit government policies, with the inclusion of subsidy, cost recovery and rainwater harvesting as effective tools in improving and encouraging equity in water access.


Women and green jobs in construction industries
ABSTRACT: The unique qualities of women can make them bearers of solutions towards achieving sustainability and dealing with the dangers attributed to climate change. The attitudinal study utilized a questionnaire instrument to obtain the perception of female construction professionals. By using a well-structured questionnaire, data were obtained on women participating in green jobs in the construction Industry. Descriptive statistics is performed on the collected data and presented in tables and mean scores (MS). In addition, inferential statistics of categorical regression was performed on the data to determine the level of influence (beta factor) the identified barriers had on the level of participation in green jobs. Barriers and the socio-economic benefits which can guide policies and actions on attracting, retaining and exploring the capabilities of women in green jobs can be obtained from the survey data when analyzed.


Energy security, trade, and transition to the green economy in Africa
ABSTRACT: Environmental challenges have enhanced renewed focus on the need to drive the economy in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner; therefore, resulting to the emergence of the concept of green economy (GE). In driving the economy toward a green growth path, the pattern of trade and security of energy will play a vital role. Energy (renewable) has been identified as one of the 6 sectors that would provide trade opportunities for export markets in the transition towards a GE, particularly for developing economies, Africa inclusive. This can be done through the use of appropriate policies and trade remedies geared towards enhancing the infrastructural and technological capacities of these countries towards the exchange of environmentally friendly goods and services. Through the export of renewable energy such as solar, wind, biofuels, given their abundant supply in Africa; energy security would be achieved with the transition to a greener growth path as against a “brown” or (“dirty”) growth. From the foregoing, this study explores the components of trade-offs and synergies in relation to trade and security of energy in Africa in the wake of the need for the continent to switch to GE using a sample of 43 selected African countries (2006-2013). The data engaged are sourced from the World Development Indicators. Some important findings and their policy implications are documented in the study.


Social and context-aware mobile recommendation system for tourism
ABSTRACT: Loyalty in tourism is one of the main concerns for tourist organizations and researchers alike. Recently, technology in general and CRM and social networks, in particular, have been identified as important enablers for loyalty in tourism. This paper presents POST-VIA 360, a platform devoted to supporting the whole life-cycle of tourism loyalty after the first visit. The system is designed to collect data from the initial visit by means of pervasive approaches. Once data is analyzed, POST-VIA 360 produces accurate after visit data and, once returned, is able to offer relevant recommendations based on positioning and bio-inspired recommended systems. To validate the system, a case study comparing recommendations from the POST-VIA 360 and a group of experts was conducted. Results show that the accuracy of the system's recommendations is remarkable compared to previous efforts in the field. 


Assessment of Energy Saving Potentials for Smart Cities 
ABSTRACT: The study is used to assess the wind energy potential of Maiduguri and Potiskum, two sites in North-East, Nigeria. 21 years (1987-2007) monthly mean wind data at 10 m height were assessed from the Nigeria Meteorological department and subjected to 2-parameter Weibull and other statistical analyzes. The result showed that average monthly mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 3.90 to 5.85 m/s, while for Maiduguri, it ranged from 4.35 to 6.33 m/s. Seasonally, data variation between the dry and wet seasons revealed that the mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 4.46 (for dry) to 5.16 m/s (for wet), while for Maiduguri it ranged from 5.10 (dry) to 5.59 m/s (wet). The wind power density variation based on the Weibull analysis ranged from 102.54 to 300.15 W/m2 for Potiskum and it ranged from 114.77 to 360.04 W/m2 for Maiduguri respectively. Moreover, Maiduguri was found to be the better of the sites in terms of monthly and seasonal variation of mean wind speed, but they both can be suitable for stand-alone and medium scale wind power generation.


A multi-layer perceptron network model for construction material procurement in smart cities
Material contributes greatly to the total cost of construction. Effective material procurement can yield significant cost savings, profit maximization and improved client satisfaction. The aim of the study was to predict factors with the greatest influence on material procurement. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design, with the aid of 85 questionnaires distributed to contractors on the mainland area of Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Data obtained were analyzed using the multilayered perceptron network model. The findings reveal the volume of order and reputation of manufacturers/suppliers as the strongest variables predicting the outcome of material price while the time of material order and current sales were found to predict material quality. Moreover, the study predicted that material price during procurement is unstable. At some time, material prices are docile and pick up gradually while at other times material prices appreciate and suddenly crash. The findings of the study have strong implications for material procurement in a construction site, particularly in fast-developing cities. The study recommends the adoption of an effective material procurement system that will bring about tradeoffs between material price, material quality and time of material order all of which are important in achieving construction project objectives.


Radiometric and kaolinitic terrains in Smart Basins 
This article consists of the in situ data sets of activity concentrations of radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, and U-238) and gamma radiation dose rates measured about 1 m above a kaolinitic terrain in Ifonyintedo, Dahomey Basin, SW Nigeria. Nineteen (19) data points were randomly occupied at the lower axis of the kaolin field using a hand-held detector known as Super-Spec (RS 125). At each data point, the measurements were taken four times, while their averages and standard deviations were estimated in order to ensure accuracy. The radiometric survey was carried out between December 2017 and January 2018. The data sets were processed and analyzed via descriptive statistics. The data can be explored further by estimating the radiological risks to the miners on the field, and to correlate the activity concentrations of the data with the activity concentrations of the tiles that are produced from the kaolin deposits in Ifonyintedo. Furthermore, the data from this article could be compared with other data acquired over a kaolinitic terrain across the globe.


Magnetic activity and ionospheric amplitude scintillation in Emerging Smart Cities 
ABSTRACT: With the increasing researches in the understanding of the ionospheric irregularities' behavior near the magnetic equator, an attempt has been made to study the impact of the magnetic activity on the occurrence of Amplitude Scintillation (S4) over Lagos, Nigeria. The occurrence rate of international quiet (Q) and international disturbed (D) days were examined compared for five days. The occurrences of S4 were recorded during quiet days than the disturbed days in the study area, except in September where there was more S4 during disturbed days than quiet days. Generally, the occurrence of S4 was enhanced during pre-midnight hours but was suppressed during post-midnight hour both at quiet and disturbed days in Lagos.


Hybrid renewable power supply for rural health clinics (RHC) 
ABSTRACT: The potentials of major renewable energy sources (wind and solar) in selected locations across the six geopolitical regions of Nigeria, based on long-term daily meteorological data spanning between 18 and 39years were reviewed in this study. In addition, the techno-economic feasibility of utilizing hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage systems to meet a load of a typical rural healthcare facility at the selected sites was assessed. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for the locations. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) was employed to conduct the study. Findings from the study showed that Sokoto and Jos exist in the high wind potential regions, while the remain sites are only suitable for small wind applications. Values obtained for global, beam and diffuse radiation as well as clearness index, show that all the sites enjoy considerable solar energy potential suitable for varying degree of solar energy applications. Monthly optimum tilt angle for Iseyin, Sokoto, Maiduguri, Jos, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt lies in the range of 0-39.8°, 0-44.5°, 0-44.1°, 0-43.2°, 0-38.5°, and 0-36.3° respectively thereby having the optimum angle to be equal to 0° in all sites in April, May, June, July and August. The simulation results from HOMER indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. The PV/wind/diesel/battery hybrid system configuration is considered optimum for RHC applications at Sokoto, Maiduguri, Jos, and Enugu, while hybrid systems involving PV/diesel/battery is considered ideal for RHC at remote locations within Iseyin and Port-Harcourt, due to the quality of renewable energy potential. The diesel-only system provides the highest COE ($0.911/kWh) and emits 9211kg of CO2 per year in all the site considered.


Experimental performance of LPG refrigerant charges with varied concentration of TiO2 nano-lubricants in a domestic refrigerator
ABSTRACT: This article presents an experimental investigation of varied mass charges of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (40g, 50g, 60g, and 70g) enhanced with varied TiO2 nanoparticle/mineral oil concentrations (0.2g/L, 0.4g/L, and 0.6g/L nano-lubricants) in an R134a compressor of a domestic refrigerator. Performance tests investigated at steady state included: pull down time, power consumption, compressor power input, cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP). The analysis was based on temperature and pressure readings obtained from appropriate gauges attached to the test rig. Refrigerant property characteristics were obtained using Ref-Prop NIST 9.0 software. Results obtained showed almost equal evaporator air temperatures and reduction in power consumption for all tested nano-lubricant concentrations except at 70g charge of LPG using 0.6g/L nano-lubricant. Furthermore, the lowest compressor power input was found to be 21W and obtained using 70g of LPG with either of 0.2g/L or 0.4g/L nano-lubricants. At 70g of LPG using 0.6g/L concentration of nano-lubricant, highest cooling capacity index of 65W was obtained while the highest COP of 2.8 was obtained with a 40g charge of LPG using 0.4g/L concentration of nano lubricant. In conclusion, LPG-TiO2 nano-lubricant mixture works safely and efficiently in domestic refrigerators without modification of capillary tube length but requires adequate optimization.