The Invention of God, by Thomas Römer

Scholarship, not ideology, drives this welcome effort to determine what is historical and what is not in the depiction of God, says Robert A. Segal

January 14, 2016
Sacrifice of Isaac, by Caravaggio (1603)
God-fearing: Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son Isaac when commanded to by God

Nowadays, at least in the humanities, “invention” means mere invention. Rather than a synonym for “discovery”, invention is now the antonym of discovery. To label something invented is to expose it as false and tendentious.

This notion of invention goes back to the ancient Sophists, but it has peaked among the postmodern set. For postmodernists, nothing is true because the origin of any idea can be traced back through historical DNA. The identification of the time and place of the origin of an idea somehow automatically confines the applicability of that idea to the locale of its origin.

In actuality, all ideas, including scientific ones, originate in a specific time and place. But an idea can still be true. To collapse truth into origin is to commit the genetic fallacy, of which 99 per cent of postmodernism consists.

Thomas Römer, professor of the Hebrew Bible at the Collège de France, himself uses “invention” in anything but a postmodern fashion. By invention he means gradual invention, and invention not by a single thinker but by a culture as a whole.

In biblical studies, invention refers to dating. To claim that the Hebrew Bible was composed later than the times to which it is seemingly referring is to claim that it reflects the outlook not of, say, the Patriarchs but of the Prophets. The objection by “inventionists” is not that the Bible mischaracterises the view of the Prophets but that it projects that view back on to the Patriarchs.

The key issue over which invention arises in biblical studies is the nature of God. When God reveals himself to Abraham (then called Abram) in Genesis 12, no other people worships that deity, who proceeds to tap Abram to be the founder of his chosen people. In fact, Abram himself has hitherto not even known of this God. He has been a pagan.

At the same time Abram does not proceed to deny the existence of other gods. Each nation has its own god or gods, and the question is only whose gods are stronger, not whose gods are real. When, in the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20), God prohibits Israelites from worshipping other gods, his prohibition would be pointless if there were no other gods.

Römer enlists non-biblical sources of all kinds to argue that what eventually became monotheism, or the belief in a single god altogether, originated millennia earlier in the Iron Age in either Edom or the northwest Arabian peninsula. God only subsequently became the god of Israel. He became the sole god of Israel only with the “elimination” of rival male and female gods, such as the mother goddess Asherah. Not until the destruction of Jerusalem in 586BC did there emerge the (thereafter mainstream) Jewish view of God as the sole god in the universe, as the creator god, and yet also as the god of Israel.

In the 19th century, German biblicists such as the anti-Semitic Julius Wellhausen argued for invention as mere invention. In the 20th century, American scholars led by William Foxwell Albright restored much, not all, of the historicity of the Bible. In the 21st century, the Church of Scotland has recently argued for invention as mere invention.

Römer, a distinguished scholar rather than an ideologue, seeks to determine exactly what is historical and exactly what is not in the depiction of God. This is a brilliant book.

Robert A. Segal is sixth century professor of religious studies, University of Aberdeen, and author of Myth: A Very Short Introduction (2004, 2015) and editor of 30-Second Mythology (2012).

The Invention of God
By Thomas Römer
Translated by Raymond Geuss
Harvard University Press, 320pp, £25.00
ISBN 9780674504974
Published 14 December 2015

Please login or register to read this article.

Register to continue

Get a month's unlimited access to THE content online. Just register and complete your career summary.

Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus:

  • Sign up for the editor's highlights
  • Receive World University Rankings news first
  • Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches
  • Participate in reader discussions and post comments

Reader's comments (3)

A sloppily written review which almost had me thrilled...
"The key issue over which invention arises in biblical studies is the nature of God. When God reveals himself to Abraham (then called Abram) in Genesis 12, no other people worships that deity, who proceeds to tap Abram to be the founder of his chosen people. In fact, Abram himself has hitherto not even known of this God. He has been a pagan." Who does the invention: Abraham, Moses or the prophets? I think discovery or invention fail to hammer the concept of God in the OT narratives. YHWH intervened into the history of Israel as One God above all gods. I'll side with scholars such as Brueggemann, and Goldingay who designate YHWH as self-announced. Israel related to this self-announcement and revelation. Or is invention synonymous to creation? Also the creation story forms a unity of the whole theology of Israel, and all other things else revolves around the Genesis narratives.
Römer is indeed a great scholar and The Invention of God offers a comprehensive study on the topic. Unfortunately, Römer does not bring anything new to the debate. I would have liked him to extend his study to the Bronze Age. He would then have had little choice, but to discuss the importance of ancestors worship in ancient Israel. And in doing so, perhaps he would have noticed the important parallels that can be observed between the cult of the ancestors and the Abrahamic narratives. This, in turn, might have brought him to investigate on Baal Berith (“Lord of Covenant”), the pagan deity of Shechem that bears so many parallels with Yahweh (not just its epithet). Had Römer done so, I believe his book would have been very different... I recently published The Covenant, which covers the period of the Bronze Age to the Iron Age (free download at I would love your thoughts on this work as I believe it offers a perfect complement to Römer's study by showing that the Abrahamic story, which is the umbilical cord of Judaism across the ages, can actually be traced back to a particular historical event of the Bronze Age that was related to the exercise of control over the Valley of Siddim; and important trade corridor between Egypt and Mesopotamia. This secular event, I believe, was the actual moment in time that marked the actual invention of God.

Have your say

Log in or register to post comments


Featured jobs

Lecturer in Psychology

University Of Lincoln

Professor in Business Economics

University Of Nottingham Ningbo China

Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Combustion Dynamics

Norwegian University Of Science & Technology - Ntnu

Professor in Finance

Durham University