Today, and in the future, we look to electronics to provide answers for complex problems. Take the mobile phone: a very sophisticated computer and communications system that links to a worldwide network of antennas allowing it to connect to any other mobile or landline as well as the internet. Or the digital camera, at the heart of which is a sophisticated electronic device containing millions of individual light level detectors. Modern electronics requires an understanding of fundamental analogue and digital circuits to enable the design of elements that can be connected together to make small systems, which serve as the modular blocks for bigger, more complex systems. We live in an information age. Complex systems require digital signal processing (for images, audio and other signals). Technological developments in communications include concurrent processing (to allow the manipulation of the massive amounts of data), data networking and digital communication systems for both local distribution and across the internet.