This programme will enable you to study two or more European languages as well as the literature, artistic developments and theories associated with them. The programme aims to develop your engagement with the languages, histories, literatures, cultures and societies of both France and one or more Scandinavian countries. Through intense training in the target language you will acquire near-native fluency. Beyond the intensive study of the French language, you will explore the exciting contribution of French speakers to world culture. French political and philosophical ideas have played a central role in creating our modern civilisation. As a large subject area, the French department at Edinburgh can offer you a wide range of courses spanning the Middle Ages to the 21st century, including specialist options in literature, film and politics taught by leading specialists in their field. The languages, history, politics and culture of the Scandinavian countries have had a considerable impact beyond the Nordic region. At the University of Edinburgh you will explore Scandinavian culture, past and present, alongside the study of the Scandinavian languages. Whichever of the three main languages - Danish, Norwegian or Swedish - you choose to specialise in, you will also gain a passive knowledge of the other two during the course of your programme. You do not need a previous knowledge of any of the languages as courses are available for beginners.